AskDefine | Define suffixes

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  1. Plural of suffix

Extensive Definition

In grammar, a suffix or ending is an affix which is placed at the end of a word. Common examples are case endings, which indicate the grammatical case of nouns or adjectives, and verb endings, which form the conjugation of verbs.
Suffixes can carry grammatical information (inflectional suffixes), or lexical information (derivational suffixes). An inflectional suffix is sometimes called a desinence.
Some examples from English:
Girls, where the suffix -s marks the plural;
He makes, where suffix -s marks the third person singular present tense;
He closed, where the suffix -d marks the past tense.
A large number of endings are found in many synthetic languages such as Czech, German, Finnish, Latin, Hungarian, Russian, etc.
Suffixes used in English frequently have Greek, French or Latin origins.

Inflectional suffixes

Inflection changes grammatical properties of a word within its syntactic category. In the example:
The weather forecaster said it would clear today, but it hasn't cleared at all.
the suffix -ed inflects the root-word clear to indicate past tense.
Some inflectional suffixes in present day English:

Derivational suffixes

In the example:
"The weather forecaster said it would be clear today, but I can't see clearly at all"
the suffix -ly modifies the root-word clear from an adjective into an adverb. Derivation can also form a semantically distinct word within the same syntactic category. In this example:
"The weather forecaster said it would be a clear day today, but I think it's more like clearish!"
the suffix -ish modifies the root-word clear, changing its meaning to "clear, but not very clear".
Some derivational suffixes in present day English:
  • -ize/-ise
  • -fy
  • -ly
  • -able
  • -ful
  • -ness
  • -ism
  • -ment
  • -ist
  • -al
suffixes in Guarani: Mbiti
suffixes in Breton: Lostger
suffixes in Bulgarian: Наставка
suffixes in Catalan: Sufix
suffixes in Czech: Sufix
suffixes in Danish: Suffiks
suffixes in German: Suffix
suffixes in Estonian: Sufiks
suffixes in Spanish: Sufijo
suffixes in Esperanto: Sufikso
suffixes in French: Affixe#Place_des_affixes
suffixes in Galician: Sufixo
suffixes in Hindi: प्रत्यय
suffixes in Indonesian: Sufiks
suffixes in Icelandic: Viðskeyti
suffixes in Italian: Suffisso
suffixes in Latin: Suffixum
suffixes in Macedonian: Наставка
suffixes in Dutch: Suffix
suffixes in Japanese: 接尾辞
suffixes in Norwegian: Suffiks
suffixes in Norwegian Nynorsk: Affiks#Suffiks
suffixes in Low German: Suffix
suffixes in Polish: Przyrostek
suffixes in Portuguese: Sufixo
suffixes in Quechua: K'askaq
suffixes in Simple English: Suffix
suffixes in Finnish: Pääte (morfologia)
suffixes in Swedish: Suffix
suffixes in Volapük: Poyümot
suffixes in Chinese: 後綴
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